Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

Our journal publishes peer-reviewed articles. We uphold the best standards of publication ethics and take all possible measures against publication malpractices.

Our ethic statements are based on Elsevier recommendations and on COPE’s Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors.

Publication decisions

The editor is responsible for deciding which of the articles submitted to the journal should be published. The editor may be guided by the policies of the journal's editorial board and constrained by such legal requirements as shall then be in force regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.

Fair play

An editor at any time evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors.


The editor and any editorial staff must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher, as appropriate.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in an editor's own research without the express written consent of the author.



Contribution to Editorial Decisions

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications with the author may also assist the author in improving the paper.


Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.


Any manuscripts received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except as authorized by the editor.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with supporting arguments.

Acknowledgement of Sources

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper of which they have personal knowledge.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.



Reporting standards

Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

Data Access and Retention

Authors may be asked to provide the raw data in connection with a paper for editorial review, and should in any event be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication.

Originality and Plagiarism

The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.

Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication

An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.

Acknowledgement of Sources

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

Authorship of the Paper

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript - Statement 1 (login required): docpdf. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed in statement 2 (login required): docpdf.

Fundamental errors in published works

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.


Steps designed to prevent unethical practices in science including “ghostwriting” and “guestauthorship”.

The editors wish to make sure that readers can be certain that authors are presenting their research results in a manner that is transparent and ethical. This is especially true of co-authored papers. We pay particular attention to information on entities responsible for the publication. This includes both scientific and financial input. Practices such as ghostwriting and guest authorship are considered unethical. Ghostwriting is defined as the practice where someone contributes substantially to the creation of a paper but is not listed as one of the authors or not mentioned in the acknowledgments section. Guest authorship or honorary authorship is defined as the practice where someone does not meaningfully contribute to a paper or does not contribute at all but remains listed as the main author or co-author of the publication. In light of the above, authors wishing to publish are required to follow this procedure:

1. Must reveal the amount of input from each co-author (list affiliation and describe contribution– who authored the main idea, key assumptions, key methods, etc…). Please note that the corresponding author bears most of the responsibility. Statement 1 (login required): docpdf.

2. Must reveal sources of financing, contribution from research institutions and associations (financial disclosure) as well as other entities. Statement 2 (login required): docpdf.

3. If ghostwriting, guest authorship or other types of unethical behavior (violations of commonly accepted ethics rules in science) are detected, the authors’ employers will be notified.