Green Hotels – Exception or Norm?


  • Mariusz Cembruch-Nowakowski Pedagogical University of Krakow



development of marketing strategies, financial aspects, green hotels, ecological consumers’ attitudes


The paper aims at presenting the broad literature report on green hotels. Development of the “green hotels” concept and its implementation are relatively new initiatives in hospitality sector. They can be seen as the elements of the growing general global environmental awareness. Hospitality industry is one of the most rapidly expanding sector worldwide. It is strongly associated with tourism. However, with the growing palette of services offered currently by the hotels they tend to play various socio-economical roles. In many locations hotels function as a driving force for socio-economic development, serving as employers for the local population, but also providing the forum for meetings, conferences, private/family events and ceremonies. Unfortunately, hospitality is also recognised as an industry characterised by the consumption of significant amount of resources. In particular, this concerns energy and water consumption but also waste generation. Based on literature reports the paper presents impact of dynamically growing hotel industry on the environment. The evolution in customers’ preferences towards green hotels is discussed in terms of their growing environmental awareness and the level of their satisfaction. The willingness of customers to financially support green hotel practices is discussed. The theoretical background of marketing strategies is discussed. The role of communication between various players involved in hotel operations is underlined.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Author Biography

Mariusz Cembruch-Nowakowski, Pedagogical University of Krakow

Mariusz Cembruch-Nowakowski, PhD in management, graduated from the Faculty of Management and Social Communication of the Jagiellonian University. Asssociate professor at the Pedagogical University of Krakow, Institute of Geography, Department of Entrepreneurship and Spatial Management, expert at the Statistical Office in Krakow and a contributor of the Tourism Institute in Krakow. His research interest focus on management in hotel industry and various objects dedicated to cultural activities.


Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior. In: J. Kuhl, J. Beckman (eds.). Action-control: From cognition to behavior. Heidelberg: Springer, 11–39.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.

Ajzen, I. (2001). Nature and operation of attitude. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 27–58.

Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitude and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Ajzen, I., Madden, T. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior: attitude,intentions, and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 453–474. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(86)90045-4

Bamberg, S. (2003). How does environmental concern influence specific environmentally related behaviors? A new answer to an old question. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 21–32.

Bamberg, S., Ajzen, I., Schmidt, P. (2003). Choice of Travel Mode in the Theory of Planned Behavior: The Roles of Past Behavior, Habit, and Reasoned Action. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 25, 175–188. doi: 10.1207/S15324834BASP2503_01

Barsky, J., Labagh, R. (1992). A strategy for customer satisfaction. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 33(5), 32–40. doi: 10.1177/004728759303100429

Berezan, O., Millar, M., Raab, C. (2010). Hotel guests’ perceptions of sustainable hotel practices in a Mexican destination, Caesars Hospitality Research Summit. Paper 9. Retrieved from http://

Berezan, O., Raab, C., Yoo, M., Love, C. (2013). Sustainable hotel practices and nationality: The impact on guest satisfaction and guest intention to return, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 227–233. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.03.010

Bitner, M.J. (1992). Services capes: the impact of physical surroundings on consumers and employees. J. Mark, 56(2), 57–71. doi: 10.2307/1252042

Bruns-Smith, A., Choy, V., Chong, H., Verma, R. (2015). Environmental sustainability in the hospitality industry: Best practices, guest participation, and customer satisfaction. Cornell Hospitality Reports, 15(3), 6–16. Retrieved from 2018/10/24

Cadotte, E., Turgeon, N. (1988). Key Factors in Guest Satisfaction. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 28(4), 45–51.

Chan, E.S.W., Hawkins, R. (2012). Application of EMSs in a hotel context: a case study. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 405–418. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.06.016

Chen, H., Bernard, S., Rahman, I., (2019). Greenwashing in hotels: A structural model of trust and behavioural intentions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 206, 326–335.

Chen, M.-F., Tung, P.-J. (2014). Developing an extended Theory of Planned Behavior model to predict consumers’ intention to visit green hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 36, 221–230. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.09.006

Chen, R.J.C. (2015). From sustainability to customer loyalty: A case of full service hotels’ guests. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 22, 261–265. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2014.08.007

Dalton, G.J., Lockington, D.A., Baldock, T.E. (2008). A survey of tourist attitudes to renewable energy supply in Australian hotel accommodation. Renewable Energy, 33, 2174–2185. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2007.12.016

Davies, T., Cahill, S., Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry, Discussion Paper 00- -14. (March 2000). Resources for the Future 1616 P Street, NW, Washington, DC. Retrieved from

Dimara, E., Manganari, E., Skuras, D. (2017). Don’t change my towels please: Factors influencing participation in towel reuse programs. Tourism Management, 59, 425–437.

Dolnicar, S. (2002). Business travellers’ hotel expectations and disappointments: A different perspective to hotel attribute importance investigation. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 7(1), 29–35. doi: 10.1080/10941660208722107/2018/08/23

Dolnicar, S., Otter, T. (2003). Which hotel attributes matter? A review of previous and a framework for further research. In: T. Griffin, R. Harris (eds.). Asia Pacific Tourism Association 9th Annual Conference, Sydney, 176–188.

Dube, L., Renaghan, L. (1999). How hotel attributes deliver the promised benefits. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 40(5), 89–95.

Mariusz Cembruch-Nowakowski Dunlap, R.E., Van Liere, K.D. (1978). The new environmental paradigm. Journal of Environmental Education, 9, 10–19. doi: 10.3200/JOEE.40.1.19-28 Dunlap, R.E., Van Liere, K.D., Mertig, A.G., Jones, R.E. (2000). Measuring endorsement of the new ecological paradigm: a revised NEP scale. Journal of Social Issues, 56(3), 425–442. doi: 10.1111/0022-4537.00176

Erdogan, N., Baris, E. (2007). Environmental Protection Programs and Conservation Practices of Hotels in Ankara, Turkey. Tourism Management, 28, 604–614. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2006.07.003

Fishbein, M.A., Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Frey, B.S. (1997). Not Just for The Money. An Economic Theory of Personal Motivation. Cheltenham, UK and Brookfield, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Frey, B.S., Jegen, R. (2001). Motivation crowding theory: a survey of empirical evidence. J. Econ.Surv., 15(5), 589–611. doi: 10.1111/1467-6419.00150

Frey, B.S., Oberholzer-Gee, F. (1997). The cost of price incentives: an empirical analysis of motivation crowding-out. Am. Econ. Rev., 87(4), 746–755.

Gao, Y., Mattila, A.S. (2014). Improving consumer satisfaction in green hotels: The roles of perceived warmth, perceived competence, and CSR motive. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 42, 20–31. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.06.003

Gil-Soto, E., Armas-Cruzc, Y., Morini-Marrero, S., Ramos-Henríquez, J.M. (2019). Hotel guests’ perceptions of environmental friendly practices in social media. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 78, 59–67. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.11.016

Gössling, S. (2002). Global environmental consequences of tourism. Global Environ. Change, 12, 283–302. doi: 10.1016/S0959-3780(02)00044-4 Gössling, S. (2015). New performance indicators for water management in tourism. Tourism Manage, 46, 233–244. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2014.06.018

Gössling, S., Hall, C.M. (2005). Tourism and global environmental change: Ecological social, economic and political interrelationships, Contemporary Geographies of Leisure Tourism and Mobility.

Gössling, S., Hall, C.M. (eds.). (2005). Tourism and Global Environmental Change: Environmental, Economic, Social and Political Interrelationships, London: Routledge.

Gössling, S., Peeters, P., Ceron, J.P., Dubois, G., Patterson, T., Richardson, R.B. (2005). The eco-efficiency of tourism. Ecol. Econ, 54, 417–434. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2004.10.006

Gössling, S., Peeters, P., Hall, C.M., Ceron, J.P., Dubois, G., Lehmann, V., Scott, D. (2012). Tourism and water use: supply, demand, and security. An international review. Tourism Manage, 33, 1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2011.03.015 Green Hotel Association (n.d.). Retrieved from 2018/09/11

Green Seal (2012). Green Seal Standards. Retrieved from GreenBusiness/Standards.aspx/2018/10.05

Gupta, A., Dash, S., Mishra, A. (2019). All that glitters is not green: Creating trustworthy eco-friendly services at green hotels. Tourism Management, 70, 155–169. doi: 10.1016/ j.tourman.2018.08.015

Gustin, M., Weaver, P. (1996). Are hotels prepared for the environmental consumer? The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 20(2), 114. doi: 10.1177/ 109634809602000201

Gutman, J. (1982). A means-end chain model based on consumer categorization processes. Journal of Marketing, 46(2), 60–72. doi: 10.2307/3203341

Han, H., Hsu, L.T., Sheu, Ch. (2010). Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to green hotel choice: Testing the effect of environmental friendly activities. Tourism Management, 31, 325–334. doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2009.03.013

Han, H., Kim, Y. (2010). An investigation of green hotel customers’ decision formation: Developing an extended model of the theory of planned behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(4), 659–668. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.01.001

Han, H., Lee, J.S., Trang, H.L.T., Kim, W. (2018). Water conservation and waste reduction management for increasing guest loyalty and green hotel practices. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 75, 58–66. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.03.012

Han, H., Yoon, H.J. (2015). Hotel customers’ environmentally responsible behavioral intention: Impact of key constructs on decision in green consumerism. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 45, 22–33. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.11.004

Hartline, M., Jones, K. (1996). Employee performance cues in a hotel service environment: Influence on perceived service quality, value and word-of-mouth intentions. Journal of Business Research, 35, 207–215.

Holjevac, I.A. (2003). A vision of tourism and the hotel industry in the 21st century. Hospitality Management, 22, 129–134. doi: 10.1016/0148-2963(95)00126-3

Huang, H.Ch., Lin, T.H., Lai, M.C., Lin, T.L. (2014). Environmental consciousness and green customer behavior: An examination of motivation crowding effect. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 40, 139–149. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.04.006

Human Development Report 2007/2008: Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in A Divided World. Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York, USA: Palgrave Macmillan Houndmills.

International Tourism Partnership (n.d.). Going Green: Minimum standards towards a sustainable hotel. Retrieved from 2018/09/12.

Kang, K.H., Stein, L., Heo, C.., Lee, S. (2012). Consumers’ willingness to pay for green initiatives of the hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 564– 572. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.08.001

Kim, S.H., Kim, M., Han, H.S., Holland, S. (2016). The determinants of hospitality employees’ pro-environmental behaviors: the moderating role of generational differences. Int. J. Hospit. Manag., 52, 56–67.

Kostakis, I., Sardianou, E. (2012). Which factors affect the willingness of tourists to pay for renewable energy? Renewable Energy, 38, 169–172. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2011.07.022

Lee, W.H., Cheng, C.C. (2018). Less is more: A new insight for measuring service quality of green hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 68, 32–40. doi: 10.1016/ j.ijhm.2017.09.005

Li, M., Wei, W. (2013). Consumers’ pro-environmental behavior and the underlying motivations: A comparison between household and hotel settings. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32, 102–112. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.04.008

Lindenberg, S., Steg, L. (2007). Normative, gain and hedonic goal frames guiding environmental behavior. Journal of Social Issues, 63(1), 117–137. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2007.00499.x

Liu, T., Jin, S., Zhu, H., Qi, X. (2018). Construction of Revised TPB Model of Customer Green Behavior: Environmental Protection Purpose and Ecological Values Perspectives. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 167. Retrieved from article/10.1088/1755-1315/167/1/012021/pdf/2018/10/27

]Lockyer, T. (2002). Business guests’ accommodation selection: the view from both sides. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 14(6), 294–300. doi: 10.1108/09596110210436832

Lockyer, T. (2005). Understanding the dynamics of the hotel accommodation purchase decision. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 16(6/7), 481–492. doi: 10.1108/09596110510612121

Madden, T., Ellen, P.S., Ajzen, I. (1992). A comparison of the theory of planned behavior and the theory of reasoned action. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(2), 3–9.

Manaktola, K., Jauhari, V. (2007). Exploring consumer attitude and behaviour towards green practices in the lodging industry in India. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(5), 364–377. doi: 10.1177/0146167292181001

McCleary, K., Weaver, P., Lan, L. (1994). Gender-based differences in business travelers’ lodging preferences. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 35, 51–58. doi: 10.1177/001088049403500218

Miao, L., Wei, W. (2013). Consumers’ pro-environmental behavior and the underlying motivations: A comparison between household and hotel settings. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32(1), 102–112. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.04.008.

Millar, M., Baloglu, S. (2008). Hotel Guests’ Preferences for Green Hotel Attributes. Hospitality Management, Paper 5. Retrieved from

Muralidharan, S., Muralidharan, S., Xue, F., Xue, F. (2016). Personal networks as a precursor to a green future: a study of “green” consumer socialization among young millennials from India and China. Young Consum., 17(3), 226–242. doi: 10.1108/YC-03-2016-00586

Nimri, R., Patiar, A., Kensbock, S. (2017). A green step forward: Eliciting consumers’ purchasing decisions regarding green hotel accommodation in Australia. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 33, 43–50. doi: 10.1016/j.jhtm.2017.09.006

Oliver, R.L. (1993). Cognitive, affective, and attribute bases of the satisfaction response. J. Consum. Res., 20(3), 418–430.

Parment, A. (2016). Generation Y vs. Baby Boomers: shopping behavior, buyer involvement and implications for retailing. J. Retailing Consum. Serv., 20(2). 189–199. doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser. 2012.12.001

Perugini, M., Bagozzi, R. (2001). The Role of Desires and Anticipated Emotions in Goal‐directed behaviours: Broadening and deepening the theory of planned behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 79–98. doi: 10.1348/014466601164704

Poels, K., Dewitte, S. (2008). Hope and self-regulatory applied to an advertising context – Promoting prevention stimulates goal-directed behaviour. Journal of Business Research, 61(10), 1030–1040. doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2007.09.019

Power, A., Elster, J., (2005). Environmental issues and human behaviour in low-income areas in the UK. Economic and Social Research Council. Retrieved from http://eprints.lse. /2018/10/24.

Rahman, I., Reynolds, D. (2016). Predicting green hotel behavioral intentions using a theory of environmental commitment and sacrifice for the environment. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 52, 107–116. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2015.09.007

Rahman, I., Reynolds, D., (2017). The influence of values and attitudes on green consumer behavior: A conceptual model of green hotel patronage. International Journal of Hospitality Administration, 0, 1–28. doi: 10.1080/15256480.2017.1359729

Sen, S., Bhattacharya, C.B. (2001). Does doing good always lead to doing better? Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility. J. Mark. Res., 38(2), 225–243.

Singh, J. (1991). Understanding the structure of consumers’ satisfaction evaluations of service delivery. J. Acad. Market. Sci., 19(3), 223–244.

Singh, N., Cranage, D., Lee, S. (2014). Green strategies for hotels: estimation of recycling benefits. Int. J. Hosp. Manage., 43, 13–22. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.07.006

Song, J., Jai, T.M., Li, X. (2018). Examining green reviews on TripAdvisor: Comparison between resort/luxury hotels and business/economy hotels. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration. doi: 10.1080/15256480.2018.1464418

Tajfel, H., Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In: S. Worchel, L.W. Austin (eds.). Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Chicago: Nelson-Hall, 7–24.

Teng-Yuan, H., Chung-Ming, C., Nae-Wen, K., Sally, M.Y. (2014). Establishing attributes of an environmental management system for green hotel evaluation. Int. J. Hosp. Manag, 36, 197–208. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.09.005

Tölkes, C., (2018). Sustainability communication in tourism – A literature review. Tourism Management Perspectives, 27, 10–21. doi: 10.1016/j.tmp.2018.04.002

TripAdvisor, The impact of green experience on customer satisfaction: evidence from TripAdvisor. Retrieved from green_experience_on_customer_satisfaction_evidence_from_TripAdvisor/2018/12/21

Tsaur, S., Tzeng, G. (1995). Multiattribute decision making analysis for customer preference of tourist hotels. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 4, 55–69. doi: 10.1300/ J073v04n04_04

Tzschentkea, N.A., (2008). Going green: decisional factors in small hospitality operations. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(1), 126–133. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm. 2007.07.010

UNEP Annual Evaluation Report 2003. Retrieved from

UN Environment Evaluation Office (2004). Retrieved from 20.500.11822/356/2018/11/

U.S. Travel Association (2009). American travellers more familiar with ‘green travel’ but unwilling to pay more to support it. Retrieved from american-travellers-more-familiar-‘greentravel/2018/11/09

Verma, V.K., Chandra, B. (2018). An application of theory of planned behavior to predict young Indian consumers’ green hotel visit intention. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 1152–1162.

Verma, V.K., Chandra, B. (2018). Intention to implement green hotel practices: evidence from Indian hotel industry. Int. J. Management Practice, 11(1), 24–41. doi: 10.1504/IJMP.2018.088380

Verma, V.K., Chandra, B. (2018). Sustainability and customers’ hotel choice behaviour: a choicebased conjoint analysis approach. Environ Dev Sustain, 20, 1347–1363.

Vora, S. (2007). Business travelers go green. Forbes. Retrieved from

Wang, J., Wang, S., Xue, H., Wang, Y., Li, J. (2018). Green image and consumers’ word-of-mouth intention in the green hotel industry: The moderating effect of Millennials. Journal of Cleaner Production, 181, 426–436. doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.250

Wang, S., Wang, J., Wang, Y., Yan, J., Li, J. (2018). Environmental knowledge and consumers’ intentions to visit green hotels: the mediating role of consumption values. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 35(9), 1261–1271.

Watkins, E. (1994). Do guests want green hotels? Lodging Hospitality, 70–72. doi: 10.1007/ s10668-017-9944-6

Weissenberg, A., Redington, N., Kutyla, D. (2008). The staying power of sustainability: balancing opportunity and risk in the hospitality industry. Retrieved from

Welcomgroup (1998). Welcomenviron World—Creating Public Awareness. Retrieved from:

Wyngaard, A.T., de Lange, R. (2013). The effectiveness of implementing eco initiatives to recycle water and food waste in selected Cape Town hotels. Int. J. Hosp. Manage, 34, 309–316. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.04.007

Yixiu Ashley Yu, Y.A., Li, X., Jai, T.-M. (2017). The impact of green experience on customer satisfaction: evidence from TripAdvisor. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(5), 1340–1361. doi: 10.1108/IJCHM-07-2015-0371

Zografakis, N., Gillas, K., Pollaki, A., Profylienou, M., Bounialetou, F., Tsagarakis, K.P. (2011). Assessment of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels in Crete. Renewable Energy, 36, 1323–1328. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2010.10.015




How to Cite

Cembruch-Nowakowski, M. (2019). Green Hotels – Exception or Norm?. Studies of the Industrial Geography Commission of the Polish Geographical Society, 33(3), 159–175.