Is innovativeness influenced by proactiveness and risk-taking? Evidence from Poland based on structural equation modelling




Entrepreneurial orientation, innovativeness, risk-taking, proactiveness, international entrepreneurship, internationalization of the firm, Poland, SEM


This article focuses on entrepreneurial orientation in a firm’s internationalisation process, which is one of the leading research trends in international entrepreneurship. The objective of the study is to verify the relationship between proactiveness, risk-taking and innovativeness as components of the entrepreneurial orientation of internationalised Polish firms. The article answers the main research question of how proactiveness and risk-taking influence innovativeness as an interrelated three-dimensional construct of entrepreneurial orientation. We present the results of a study based on a stratified sampling of 355 internationalised Polish firms. Structural equation modelling (CB-​SEM) demonstrated a positive effect of proactiveness (PROACT) and risk-taking (RISK) on innovativeness (INNO) as an interrelated three-dimensional construct of entrepreneurial orientation. Moreover, the level of proactiveness (PROACT) and risk-taking (RISK) explained 32% of the variation in innovativeness (INNO), which is high in social sciences, including business studies.


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Author Biographies

Marek Maciejewski, Krakow University of Economics

Marek Maciejewski, associate professor in the Department of International Trade, Krakow University of Economics, habilitated doctor in economics and finance (2020), PhD in economics (2005), author of publications on international trade and international entrepreneurship, scientific secretary of the International Entrepreneurship Review (IER).

Krzysztof Wach, Krakow University of Economics

Krzysztof Wach, full professor in the Department of International Trade, Krakow University of Economics (Poland). Professor of social sciences (2020), habilitated doctor of economics (2013), PhD in management (2006), expert in international entrepreneurship, author of several books and over 200 articles, editor-in-chief of the scientific quarterly Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review (ESCI WoS, Scopus), member of editorial boards of several scientific journals, including European Journal of International Management (SSCI WoS, Scopus), Central European Management Journal (ESCI WoS, Scopus). Visiting professors at foreign universities, including those in the USA, the UK, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Austria, Spain, Croatia, Slovakia, and Ukraine.

Agnieszka Głodowska, Krakow University of Economics

Agnieszka Głodowska, associate professor in the Department of International Trade, Krakow University of Economics, Habilitated doctor in economics and finance (2020), PhD in economics (2009), author of publications on international business and international entrepreneurship, scientific secretary of Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review (EBER), International Entrepreneurship Review (IER), International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research. Her research interests include international entrepreneurship (entrepreneurial internationalisation, entrepreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial processes and behaviour), international business (internationalization, risk and finance in international business, market analysis), international comparisons in business and entrepreneurship.


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How to Cite

Maciejewski, M., Wach, K., & Głodowska, A. (2023). Is innovativeness influenced by proactiveness and risk-taking? Evidence from Poland based on structural equation modelling. Studies of the Industrial Geography Commission of the Polish Geographical Society, 37(1), 83–99.

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