Human capital and its role in start-ups’ early internationalisation. An example of Polish new ventures




Human capital, early internationalization, start-ups, international business, international entrepreneurship, international new ventures


The article considers the relations of education and prior international experience as elements of human capital with new ventures’ early internationalisation. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of human capital as a factor that can influence early internationalisation. The paper presents partial results based on a sample of 220 Polish start-ups operating in the information and communications technology sector, founded between 2017 and 2021. Quantitative methods were used to analyse the data collected in March and April 2022 by applying the CATI method. In addition, binomial logistic regression, assuming a dichotomous dependent variable, was used to verify the formulated research hypotheses. The study finds that prior international experience and education could significantly determine the likelihood of early internationalisation. The research also showed that human capital is positively related to start-up internationalisation. The results presented in the article have practical implications. They are just a starting point for further analysis regarding focusing not only on human capital but also on considerations on intellectual capital and identifying the other factors influencing the start-ups’ early internationalisation in the information and communications technology sector, recognised as one of the most innovative industries in the Polish economy.


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Author Biographies

Krystian Bigos, Krakow University of Economics

M.Sc., research Assistant at Krakow University of Economics, Department of International Trade at the College of Economics, Finance and Law. His research interests include early and rapid internationalization, international start-ups and international entrepreneurship.

Bożena Pera, Krakow University of Economics

Ph.D. , is an Assistant Professor at the College of Economics, Finance and Law, Cracow University of Economics, Department of International Trade. Her research interests focus on international trade, economic integration, the disintegration process, regional trade agreements, international trade policy, and international business. The author can be contacted at


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How to Cite

Bigos, K., & Pera, B. (2022). Human capital and its role in start-ups’ early internationalisation. An example of Polish new ventures. Studies of the Industrial Geography Commission of the Polish Geographical Society, 36(4), 120–131.