Measures of Economic, Social and Institutional Resilience


  • Grzegorz Masik University of Gdańsk, Poland



economic resilience, indicators, institutional resilience, measures, social resilience


The subject of the paper are measures of economic, social and institutional resilience undertaken in many international studies. The aim of the study, however, is to review international research and on this basis to present the measures and indicators of resistance used. To present the results of the analysis, tables were used, taking into account several characteristics of indicators. A review of the literature shows that resilience studies distinguish categories of indicators such as: context/baseline indicators, input indicators, output indicators, outcome indicators and process indicators. Another division of indicators includes direct and indirect measurement of resilience. Resilience measures can also refer to quantitative and qualitative indicators. Referring to the scale of the research, the international, national, regional, local (urban), neighborhood and individual or household level are distinguished. A review of the studies shows that output and outcome indicators at national and local levels are most commonly used in resilience analyses. The vast majority of indicators allow to measure resilience indirectly and the measurement method is usually quantitative and based on secondary data.


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Author Biography

Grzegorz Masik, University of Gdańsk, Poland

Grzegorz Masik, PhD, University of Gdańsk, Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, Institute of Geography, Department of Socio-Economic Geography. He is employed at the University of Gdańsk as an associate professor. He has conducted projects for OECD and ESPON. His research interests include the conditions and quality of life of the population, suburbanisation processes, the concept of smart city, local and regional policy including the concept of resilience and the application of geographical information systems in socio-economic geography.


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How to Cite

Masik, G. . (2020). Measures of Economic, Social and Institutional Resilience. Studies of the Industrial Geography Commission of the Polish Geographical Society, 34(1), 32–48.