Participation of energy sector enterprises in creating the command and control function of cities in the world


  • Piotr Raźniak Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie
  • Tomasz Rachwał Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie
  • Sławomir Dorocki Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie
  • Anna Winiarczyk-Raźniak Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie



cities, command and control function of cities, energy, energy sector, Forbes


The largest companies in the energy sector play a large role both in the global economy and in creating the command and control function of cities. The goal of our study is to determine the share of the largest companies in the energy sector in creating the command and control function of cities in 2006-2018 and its spatial differentiation in the world. In a detailed analysis, companies from the energy sector included in the Forbes Global 2000 list were taken into account, compared to companies from other sectors forming the controlling and management function of cities. The research results indicate that the fastest development of energy sector occurred in Chinese cities, however, the studied sector is not very important in most of the cities of the world in terms of the command and control function, which may be related to the faster development of other sectors. On the other hand, Energy sector is very important in smaller cities. Due to the decreasing importance of companies representing the traditional energy sector, forecasts of the sector’s position and its impact on the command and control function of cities should be prepared. A new research issue will also be the development of methods that would allow to determine the impact of future recessions on the financial condition and the command and control function of energy sector companies.


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Author Biographies

Piotr Raźniak, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie

Piotr Raźniak, PhD, assistant professor in the Institute of Geography of the Pedagogical University of Krakow, Poland. Corporations, hierarchies of world cities, problems of functioning of metropolitan areas, spatial structure of corporations and command and control functions of cities created by large corporations are included as his research interests.

Tomasz Rachwał, Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie

Tomasz Rachwał, PhD, professor of Krakow University of Economics – Department of International Trade & Centre for Strategic and International Entrepreneurship, Deputy Chair of the Industrial Geography Commission of the Polish Geographical Society, member of the editorial board of several journals, author of textbooks for geography and entrepreneurship. His research interests focus primarily on the issue of change of spatial and branch structures of industry in Poland and other countries, the international and domestic determinants for the development of various branches of industrial activity, and the role of manufacturing, selected branches of services and entrepreneurship in local and regional development, as well as on geographical and entrepreneurship education.

Sławomir Dorocki, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie

Sławomir Dorocki, PhD, Department of Entrepreneurship and Spatial Management, Institute of Geography, the Pedagogical University of Krakow. Sławomir Dorocki has graduated from the Pedagogical University of Krakow with an MA degree in Geography. He holds a PhD in History (Institute of European Studies of the Jagiellonian University). Associate professor at the Pedagogical University of Krakow, Institute of Geography. His research interests are connected to regional problems and processes of socio-​economic regionalisation, with particular emphasis on the diversity of Europe, processes of European integration, historical conditions, and application of computer and statistical methods in the study of diversity of space.

Anna Winiarczyk-Raźniak, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie

Anna Winiarczyk-​Raźniak, PhD, assistant professor in the Institute of Geography of the Pedagogical University of Krakow. Her research interests include level and quality of life, development and problems of functioning of metropolitan areas, suburbanisation and social geography of Latin America.


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How to Cite

Raźniak, P., Rachwał, T., Dorocki, S., & Winiarczyk-Raźniak, A. (2022). Participation of energy sector enterprises in creating the command and control function of cities in the world. Studies of the Industrial Geography Commission of the Polish Geographical Society, 36(4), 89–105.

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